Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are a vital part of evidence-based clinical and health-policy decisions. However, they raise tension between the therapeutic obligations of physicians and the scientific requirements of investigators.

A popular solution to this RCT dilemma is the concept of equipoise, which states that it is ethical to initiate an RCT when there is genuine uncertainty within the medical community about which treatment is preferable.


Equitation is the art of riding a horse in a correct position, on the flat or over fences. A good equitation rider is in balance with her horse and can guide her horse through nearly invisible aids, using only her seat and the reins.

Riders compete in the Hunt seat, Saddle seat and Dressage disciplines. Hunters, jumpers and equitation riders are evaluated by the US Equestrian on a number of factors, including conformation, suitability and manners (US Equestrian Article 2423).

In a saddle seat class, the horse’s gaits may include the walk, trot and canter in both directions. Tests might include halting, rein back, hand gallop, figure eight at the trot or canter with correct diagonals or leads, riding without stirrups and doing a turn on the forehand or haunches.

The equitation divisions at horse shows are popular with junior riders. However, equitation class sizes have been shrinking significantly in the past few years and have resulted in some classes being shut down altogether or reduced to just a handful of competitors.


Hunting has a long history in human society. The first hunters were likely ancestors of our earliest farmers, and they used a variety of techniques to find food or protect their flocks, herds or crops. These methods included nooses, traps, snares, pits, decoys and baits.

Hunters are equipoised with rifles, shotguns, muzzleloaders, handguns, bows and arrows, and often use electronic callers to lure animals. They are responsible for killing more than 200 million wild animals yearly, including birds, deer, squirrels, quail, rabbits, pheasants, grouse, ducks and geese.

Despite claims to the contrary, hunting is not an ethical and moral practice. It is a cruel and exploitative industry that destroys animal families and ecosystems around the world. In fact, it is the main driving force behind the extinction of many species. Hunting also causes overpopulation and skewed population dynamics in animal families, and it is responsible for the introduction of exotic “game” animals that can threaten local ecosystems.


Show Jumping

Show jumping is a competition in which a horse and rider must jump a course of obstacles. It can be an enjoyable and challenging sport for both horse and rider, as the courses are designed to test a horse’s agility and focus.

The courses can be made of a variety of obstacles, such as bars or rails that the horse must jump over. The goal is to complete the course in the shortest time possible without any faults, such as knocking down rails, running around fences or refusing to jump an obstacle.

The standards for each jump are set by the equestrian event organizer and the rider must follow the guidelines to avoid getting any faults during the course. These faults are called Faults and include: Knocking down a standard, Refusing to jump an obstacle, running around a standard or overstepping the stipulated time limit.


Dressage is a gentle way to train horses, which uses training methods such as soft tugs on the reins and verbal commands. The goal is to build a bond between horse and rider that shows harmony and trust.

When you’re starting out, it’s important to work on the basic paces of walk, trot, and canter. These movements are essential for a successful dressage test.

Once you’ve mastered those, the next step is to learn how to use your aids correctly. The timing of your aids is key, as well as your balance and contact with the horse.

The suppleness of your horse is also an important part of dressage. This is measured through riding 20m circles, which help judges to see how supple your horse is.

The FEI, the international governing body of horse sport, has rules in place to ensure that dressage isn’t cruel to horses and they have stewards at competitions to make sure that welfare is maintained.

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